Links to Plains Indians
Links to Ancient Footpaths
The Sand Creek Massacre
- The American Indian in the Great War: Real and Imagined An excellent Master's Thesis! "What struck me the most when I heard that 17,000 Native Americans had served in the Great War (WWI) was that, not even thirty years after the end of the Indian wars, American Indians were willing to fight alongside their former enemy." Includes history of American Indian Affairs prior to 1900, "Portraying the Indian," American Indian Symbols in WWI, the place of the Indian during the war, and consequences of the war on everyday life for the American Indian.
- American Indian Resources: A listing of links.
- Ancient Footpaths: Native American Indian Trails "Footpaths etched the habits of the ancient people on the earth."
- The Arapaho People as told by Pius Moss, an Elder of the Arapaho Tribe on the Wind River Reservation.
- The Bannock War of 1878: A very complete account
- The Blackfeet Tribe A History. The name "Blackfeet" originates from the distinctive black hue of their moccasins, either painted that color or perhaps darkened by prairie fires.
- Buffalo and Deer - Sustainers of Life The Aboriginal people who inhabited the Northern Plains and Plateau were expert hunters who studied the habits and migration patterns of the buffalo and deer for thousands of years.
- Many links to Cherokee History Resources on the Web
- Cherokee Indian Links! Don't miss this page... it's great!
- History of the Cherokee Extensive site with lots of links
- The Cheyenne In quiet reverence before the lodge fires, the old people of the Cheyenne recounted for their young, their sacred stories, the deeds of tribal culture, heros, and their tales of origin. Without written literature, the Cheyenne, like others, orally passed their customs, religious ceremonies, and traditions from generation to generation.
- Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Historical Information The Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation is part of the Great Sioux Reservation that was established under the Treaty of 1868. This treaty established a reservation of 60,000,000+ acres that encompassed all of western South Dakota, North Dakota, Eastern Wyoming, and parts of Nebraska and Montana.
- Choctaw People: Their origins as retold from old legends.
- Cochise & Geronimo: The Chiricahua Apaches. Cochise, the principal chief of the Apaches and Geronimo, a Bedonkohe Apache leader of the Chiricahua Apache who led his people's defense of their homeland against the U.S. military of the U.S. after the death of Cochise.
- Dakota Culture and History Information about the culture, language, spirituality, Dakota Conflict, and a reading list.
- The Fatal Fetterman Fight Called a massacre at the time, the December 1866 clash near Fort Phil Kearny was, in fact, a military triumph by the Plains Indians and the Army's greatest blunder in the West until the Battle of the Little Bighorn 10 years later.
- Fort Sill, OK A history of Fort Sill Oklahoma where Geronimo is buried.
- Geronimo's Campaign: 1886 The events which ended the Indian Wars in the Southwest began in May 1885 when Geronimo and Natchez, the son of Cochise, led a group of Chiricahua Apaches off the Fort Apache Reservation.
- The Great Sioux Nation The people of the Great Sioux Nation prefer to be called Dakota, Lakota, or Nakota, according to their language group. A rich oral tradition relates the values, culture, and spirituality of the Great Sioux Nation.
- Indian Chiefs These short biographies are about chiefs who were predominately from New Mexico and Arizona. This page is from the University of Tromsų, Norway, Computer Centre.
- Indian Fur Trade This site is for the collection and sharing of unbiased information on the effects of the fur trade on Native Americans between 1804 and 1843. Too much of the history of this period reflects the prejudices of the times rather than actual events.
- Indian History of the Frontier A Timeline
- Indian Missions in Kansas A listing which gives locations and dates.
- The Indian Nations Links Page In addition to numerous links to Indian Nations, this site includes a variety of other categories: Actors, Education, Movies, Powwows, Vacation Spots, and many more.
- Indians and the West A very exhaustive bibliography from the Historical Resources Branch of the US Army Center of Military History
- The Medicine Wheel It was white men (discovering it at the end of the 19th century) who named it "Medicine Wheel," terminology they applied to anything Indian observed or told them they didn't understand.
- Natawista. daughter of Two Suns, the chief of the Blood (Kainah) tribe of the Blackfeet Confederacy worked tirelessly with her husband, Alexander Culbertson, a Mountain Man, for nearly thirty years to bridge the gap between the white adventurers on the Upper Missouri frontier and the native inhabitants of that region.
- Native American Astronomy Good information about Lakota Stellar Theology, equinoxes, solstices, constellations; the 26,000 year processional cycle of the stars and the Sun's seasonal path among the stars and what it means
- An extensive listing of Native American Links
- Native American Links Another comprehensive listing!
- Native American sites on the web. A really comprehensive listing.
- Native American Indian Sources for Culture, Education, Art, Science, and History a great comprehensive educational source!
- Native American Nations This site contains links to pages that have either been set up by the nations themselves, or are pages devoted to a particular nation.
- The Navajo Indians From the Utah History Encyclopedia
- Northern Plains Tribes: A Timeline of Events
- Pawnee Indian Village State Historic Site The Pawnee Indian Village in north central Kansas features exhibits on the Pawnee culture by using a combination of information from archeological investigation and historical details
- Plains Indians Quite a bit of information here
- The Road to Marietta "The Marietta Road" is a good example of the characteristics of ancient paths: low gaps in hills, ridges in the right direction, terraces and fordings. It was an important trail for the Native Americans and the migrating bison.
- Rocky Boy Reservation Rocky Boy is the smallest reservation and the home of the smallest group of Indians. Unlike the other reservations, Rocky Boy was not established by treaty, but by Executive Order in 1916. It was the last Indian reservation to be established in Montana.
SAND CREEK MASSACRE
- Sand Creek Chivington Massacre Colorado Black Kettle with many Cheyenne and a few Arapahos, believing themselves to be protected, established a winter camp about 40 miles from Fort Lyon. In spite of the American flag and a white flag flying over the camp, the Chivington troops attacked, killing and mutilating about 200 of the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children.
- Black Kettle The Southern Cheyenne chief whose repeated efforts to secure a peace with honor for his people, despite broken promises and attacks on his own life, speak of him as a great leader with an almost unique vision of the possibility for coexistence between white society and the culture of the plains.
- Blood and Water--The Messages: From Sand Creek
- John M. Chivington: the butcher of Sand Creek Although Chivington was never punished for his role at Sand Creek, he was forced to resign from the Colorado militia, to withdraw from politics, and to stay away from the campaign for statehood.
- The Notorious Fight at Sand Creek More often called a massacre than a battle, the attack by Colonel John M. Chivington's Colorado volunteers on Chief Black Kettle's village will forever be controversial. From The History Net.
- Photo of Black Kettle Pictured with other Cheyenne chiefs after concluding successful peace talks with Major Edward W. Wynkoop at Fort Weld, Colorado, in September 1864. Based on the promises made at this meeting, Black Kettle led his band back to the Sand Creek reservation, where they were massacred in late November.
- Sand Creek Massacre: The Congressional Hearings
- Sand Creek Massacre Eyewitness Accounts: Includes two editorials, Congressional Testimony by John S. Smith, eyewitness, and the Testimony of Colonel J. M. Chivington: April 26, 1865.
- The Sand Creek Massacre (with map): The Cheyenne and Arapaho raid which took place on November 29, 1864, and halted travel along the Platte River Valley and caused the temporary abandonment of Julesburg, Colorado.
- Roots of American Racism: Methodists Repent Sand Creek Massacre
- The Sand Creek Massacre An Outline
- Black Kettle's Letter A transcription of letter written by Black Kettle to Major Colley in August 1864.
- Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Media A discussion of the Rocky Mountain News Editorials of the Sand Creek Massacre
- Satana, Chief of the Kiowas Last of the Great Scouts, by Helen Cody Wetmore from the Kansas Collection
- Shawnee Indian Mission Methodist missionaries operated a manual labor school to teach Native American children academic subjects and crafts.
- Shoshoni Indians occupied the region from the Wind River Mountains to Fort Bridger and astride the Oregon Trail.
- Smoke Signal Bowls: The First E-Mail!
- The Southern Cheyenne often found along the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails.
- The Southern Ute Indians Culture, History, Enterprises, Government and Links
- StoneWheels And Dawn Stars Rising Stones, stars, the directions, time -- these can speak to us out of an otherwise mostly silent past. Sometimes their language is intuitive, spiritual, meanings or awe will be felt by the sensitive, but can't really be communicated. But when scientists get interested, the cosmos speaks, and they can hear it through mathematics. What may have been lost in the mists of time can be found again.
- Tecumseh: An American Hero He embodied the virtues Americans respect.
- Texas Indians And a listing of Texas Place Names, mostly derived from Indian words.
- The Trail of the Sac and Fox It was during the 1840's that the Sac and Fox Indians started on their long journey to take up their home in the land provided for them in Kansas, being a portion of the present counties of Lyon, Osage, and Franklin.
- Trail Signal Trees Native Americans made these by bending a sapling and holding it by some means until the first curve was fixed by growth. Apical dominance (a forester's term) or natural trend to grow upright would straighten the upper part. It was probably tied in some way to hasten the fixation.
- Fort Laramie Treaties: 1851 The text of treaties with the Sioux and other tribes
- Fort Laramie Treaty: 1868
- Navajo Treaty The United States' copy of the original Navajo-U.S. Treaty of 1868 will be displayed at Northern Arizona University beginning June 1, 1998
- Treaties between the US and the Native Americans The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School. Treaties between 1778 and 1868
- Treaty of Fort Laramie with the Crows, May 1868.
- The US Treaty with the Navajos, 1868 The full text
- All about the Uintah and Ouray Reservation Northern Ute
- US Tribes: A listing and includes a clickable map
- Washaki: a a great chief of the Shoshones, long time friends of the early explorers.
- Washita: Genocide on the Great Plains Almost four years to the day after The Sand Creek Massacre on November 27, 1868, the 7th Regiment of United State Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, attacked Black Kettle's band again.
- The Western Historical Manuscript Collection of Native Americans.
- The Wyandot Nation of Kansas The Wyandot Nation of Kansas is dedicated to the preservation of Wyandot history and culture and the preservation, protection, restoration and maintenance of the Huron Indian Cemetery in Kansas City, Kansas. Lots of links here.
- Books about Plains Indians From BarnesandNoble.com
Add your URL to this list!
Send comments, suggestions or inquiries: Overland Trail
[Overland Trail |
Created and maintained by Elizabeth Larson
Copyright © 1996-2001